Topic E : Sound, camera, action

Computers are just tools. With their help, you can create fancy images, videos, audio and animations. Teaching and learning is hard as well. How about combining the two? YouTube tutorials have become incredibly popular over the last few years and are the first port of call when you are using a new piece of software. In this unit, you will learn how to create your own, professional screen cast video tutorial to help teach people how to use Microsoft Publisher.

We are learning ...
  • about storyboarding;
  • about decomposing a project into smaller components;
  • how to record and import audio tracks;
  • about vector and bitmap graphics;
  • how to produce a simple animation;
  • how to record a screencast;
  • how to combine elements together into a complete project;
So that we can ...
  • create a working storyboard for a tutorial video;
  • decide which components of the project we will need to create;
  • record a simple introduction using Audacity;
  • create a logo involving the use of vector and bitmap graphics;
  • animate a starting sequence for our tutorial video involving lipsync using Krita;
  • animate our ending sequence using a tune using Krita;
  • record a tutorial using OBS;
  • combine elements of the tutorial together in a single video;
  • import and manage sound tracks.

Digital literacy focus : Desktop Publishing

Appropriate choice of software;
Creating new documents;
Entering text and images;
Creating layouts using guides;
Managing text including flowing;
Managing images including wrapping.

Programming focus

You betcha!

Microsoft Publisher

Before we start to record our tutorial videos, we need to learn how to use Microsoft Publisher!

Task 1.1 Creating documents using Publisher
Where we learn how to use features of Microsoft Publisher

There are a few video tutorials to watch to teach you how to create simple documents using Microsoft Publisher.

What text do I put in my document?

Obviously, you might not have the text you need to create the publication, so instead, designers usually use Lorem Ipsum text to help them. This is 'nonsense' text generated from a 1st-century BC Latin text by Cicero (!) which is used to allow fast generation of the visual form of a document without relying on using meaningful content. 

You can generate your own Lorem Ipsum text from the Lipsum website or click on the image below to download a text document containing some which you can use in the next step.
Lorem ipsum text - click me to get some!

Watch the videos

There are five video tutorials to watch on how to use Microsoft Publisher which cover most of the skills that you need to learn. Whilst you are watching them, I suggest you pause whilst to practice following the steps in Publisher by creating your own documents.

Remember to use Lorem Ipsum text to fill the text boxes if you need to rather than agonising over what to type!

Creating new Microsoft Publisher documents (5:01)

Video One

Mr Mills starts by showing us how to create blank Microsoft Publisher documents including the use of built in templates.

Managing text in Microsoft Publisher (13.21)

Video Two

In this very long video, Mr Mills shows us how to create text boxes, use Lorem Ipsum text to fill them up and investigates stories (text flow) and text fitting - try to stay awake!


Selecting text in linked text boxes in Microsoft Publisher (4.54)

Video Three

Mr Mills pretended that he'd missed this bit out of the previous video but that's really because it would have made it nearly 20 minutes long. Now he shows us how to link text boxes together before you type in them (wow!) and how to select text in stories.

Managing images in Microsoft Publisher (13:28)

Video Four

Pictures make a document look nice and in this video, Mr Mills shows us how to manage images in Publisher.

Creating layouts in Microsoft Publisher
I promised that you could download the template.

Video Five

Finally, he shows us how to create a proper publication! I think he gets a little bit confused though.

But to be honest, we've only just scratched the surface of what Publisher can do - it's your turn to experiment a little more.

Extra Videos for Mr Mills to Record ... Using Guides, Upside Down Template, splitting images across pages.

How rude!

Jot down some notes and provide evidence of what you have created

You should have learnt quite a lot of skills from the videos. Make sure you write down what you have learnt and provide evidence of the documents you have created. Remember, the more creative you try to be, the more you will learn.
Leaflet Drop
Publisher Help Guide

Task 1.2
Leaflet / flyer design
Where we learn how to create a design for a leaflet or a flyer

Research online

Use your favourite search engine (it's going to be Google, isn't it?) to decide on a subject and a design style for your leaflet that you are going to make in Publisher. Remember the standard leaflet types are (click to see images) ...
You can design your leaflet about anything - just make sure it's appropriate!

Now design your leaflet

Grab yourself a piece of A4 paper (or A3 if you really want) and produce a hand drawn design for your leaflet. Try not to make it too complicated - you are going to have to produce this in Microsoft Publisher!

You could design your leaflet about ...

... or anything else as long as you know lots about it!

Task 1.3
Practice making your leaflet
Where you practice making your leaflet in Publisher before you record yourself

Hopefully, you will be ready to create your publication!

Create a new Publisher document and layout

Choose a suitable blank document and design your template using the guides to help you to layout the content so that it will fold up correctly - remember to use the videos to help you if necessary.

Create your leaflet

Create your leaflet using as many of the Publisher tools as possible. You need to make it look professional and high quality and ensure that there is as little white space as possible in the document. If you get any images from the web, make sure that you use images from ...
  • Pixabay - usage rights are shown alongside each image
  • IconArchive - usage rights are shown underneath each icon
  • Flickr - you can choose the licence type from the above the search results
  • PngImg - all images are CC BY-NC so require attribution and are for non-commercial use
  • Openphoto - all images are free to use but author should be credited
  • Openclipart - all clipart is in the public domain and is completely free to use
  • Stockvault - free stock images with simple licencing shown alongside the image
... because they are (mostly) free, though some require attribution to the author. You would normally put this on the back of the leaflet (and it's a good idea to do that anyway!)

Print your leaflet and fold it up (if you need to)

If you've made a folded leaflet, you should print it and check that it folds up OK. Remember to print the leaflet double sided and flip it on the correct edge (ask your teacher if you are not sure which edge to flip the page) depending on whether your document is landscape or portrait.

Compare your leaflet to your design

It really doesn't matter if it's different as long as you can explain why you've changed it! You could see this as a first draft and then make some changes. It's always good to show a range of development ideas when you are creating artefacts like this.

Logo design - vector to bitmap

I know it might seem a little odd to the graphic designers amongst you, but Microsoft PowerPoint is a really great vector graphics tool. But before we start, how about this little quiz?

Task 2.1 Creating your vector logo
Where we use Microsoft Powerpoint to create a vector graphics logo

Investigate some more logos

Investigate some more clever logos - click on the link for a Google Image Search but be careful - there are some pretty rude ones (Internet Safety and all that).

You'll notice that a lot of logos make use of negative space - tricking your eye into seeing things that aren't there.

Clever use of negative space in logo design

There is a reason for that ...

Investigate the drawing tools in PowerPoint

Now open up PowerPoint and investigate some of the drawing tools. One of the best ways to do this is to try to create a simple picture like a house or an aeroplane. You could even make a copy of one of the clever logos that you found in Step 1. Tools you should be taught to use ...
  • Shapes tools (including the amazing freeform tool);
  • Fill colours / pictures / gradients / textures;
  • Outline colours / patterns;
  • Use of transparency;
  • The fabulous eyedropper;
  • Selecting single and multiple shapes;
  • Grouping and ungrouping shapes;
  • Arranging shapes (send back / send to back / bring forward / bring to front);
  • Aligning shapes;
  • Distributing shapes.

Vector tracing a bitmap image using PowerPoint

You can create some really professional looking vector based by tracing bitmap images in PowerPoint, although you have to work within the limitations of the tools you have available - after all, it's not really designed for this :)

Before you can attempt this, you need to be comfortable with all the skills above plus ...
  • Viewing the slide master;
  • Choosing slide layouts;
  • Deleting content from the slide layout;
  • Inserting images;
  • Drawing shapes;
  • Altering fill colour and opacity / transparency;
  • Duplicating slides / master layouts;
  • Choosing layouts;
  • Drawing with the 'freeform' tool and altering the fill and line colours;
  • Editing shape points using handles.
Tracing bitmap images in PowerPoint
Use Pixabay to download your image

Vector Tracing

In this video, Mr Mills shows us how to vector trace a (little bit of a) bitmap image of a random boat.

How design your own logo

Now with the skills you have learnt, design and create your own logo for your screencast channel! You can use these ideas to help you with your design but *don't* just copy them! Notice how most of the logos you find online are vector based which is why we've learnt to use PowerPoint to draw vector images! Consider my poor attempts ...

You can do a miles better job than me!
Bitmap to vector
Voxel Viva!

Task 2.2 Rendering as a bitmap
Where we render the vector image as a bitmap and inspect the difference

Most video software struggles to handle vector images - we can save our creation as a vector or as a bitmap.

Save the logo as a bitmap and as a vector

So, you've spent a couple of hours on PowerPoint creating a superb logo and now you are like 'what next?' You *could* copy and paste it into most applications but you might not get the result you expected. In this step, you learn how to save your logo as a bitmap and then a vector ...

Click and follow the instructions

It's an interesting thing to reflect on

Try to open the files by double clicking them

If you find the image files and double click each one in turn, you *should* find that the bitmap file (logo.png) opens up in some application (paint, Photoshop, GIMP, image viewer) quite easily. However, if you double click the logo.wmf file, you *should* find it more difficult to open - it might actually open in a bitmap viewer!

Import the images back into PowerPoint and inspect them

Finally, import both copies of your logo back into a new PowerPoint presentation ...
  • Choose  Insert  >  Pictures ;
  • Find the logo.png file;
  • Single click on the file and choose  Insert  or double click the file;
  • With the image selected, hold down the left  CTRL  key and spin your mouse wheel away from you until the logo fills the viewport;
  • Look carefully at the image - what do you notice?

  • Choose  Insert  >  Pictures ;
  • Find the logo.wmf file;
  • Single click on the file and choose  Insert  or double click the file;
  • With the image selected, hold down the left  CTRL  key and spin your mouse wheel away from you until the logo fills the viewport;
  • Look carefully at the image - what do you notice?
You *should* notice that the WMF file looks a lot worse than the original image file, especially if you've used shading effects in your logo. This is partly why it is important to save the original work in case you need to change it!

Another interesting thing to reflect on!

Creating a simple animation

In this section, you will be creating your own animation for use in your video tutorial.

Task 3.1 Storyboarding
Where we plan a simple animation

Get a storyboard template

First, either download or grab a copy of the storyboard template from your teacher.

Design your animation

There are only three panels on the template on purpose because it is only used for designing a simple animation.
  • The first panel should show the logo appears on the screen.
  • The second panel should show what happens to the logo when it is displayed.
  • The third panel should show how the logo disappears.

Describe your animation to your shoulder partner

Now, make sure that you describe your animation to your shoulder partner and get them to do the same!

Task 3.2 Creating your animation
Where we follow our storyboard and make a simple animation

Animation techniques

Before we start to produce animation, it's a good idea to learn some of the basics. Get you headphones on and watch this amazing video by Alan Becker Tutorials called "12 Principles of Animation (Official Full Series)" - it's 24 minutes long so you might need to have a break from time to time.

12 Principles of Animation (Official Full Series) (24:02)

Try to make notes on the 12 principles of animation if you can together with an explanation of each and some examples. You could even do some drawings if you wish!

A deviation - hex colour codes

Time to practice your hex / binary / denary conversions! For each of the following hexadecimal colour codes, convert it to an RGB value. You night need to use this slide on the topic presentation to help you.

I've done the first one for you so you can see the method.

Q1 : Calculate the RGB values which are represented by #45B9F4

Click to view a video (with no sound - shhhh!)
Works better in Google Chrome

As of 2019, Google has a nice colo(u)r picker that you can use to check whether your answer is correct. Just type the hex colo(u)r code in the top field on the left and the RGB colo(u)r code will appear underneath together with the actual colo(u)r that it looks like.

Because, like most things computery, color is spelt
the American way but I like to spell it properly :)

# Whiteboards Please.png
Now try these yourself on your whiteboards ...

Q2Calculate the RGB values which are represented by #B5D2E0
Q3Calculate the RGB values which are represented by #D2D829
Q4Calculate the RGB values which are represented by #C65CED
Q5Calculate the RGB values which are represented by #FFFFFF
Q6Calculate the RGB values which are represented by #000000

Are you sure?

Learn to use Krita

This is the most time consuming part of any creative process - learning to use the tools. Get you headphones on and work your way through the following tutorials. Make sure that you use Krita whilst you are watching - pause the videos and try things out - it's the best way to learn :)

This is an embedded playlist so if you click on the ...

... icon, you can choose a different video to watch if you like.

Before you move on, make sure that you can use the following tools in Krita ...
  • Manipulate images (Select, cut, copy, paste, move);
  • Align, order, group / ungroup, rotate / flip;
  • Create line / curve / shape;
  • Control stroke and fill;
  • Draw / paint;
  • Insert images;
  • Manage layers, including image and vector layers;
  • Add and edit text;
  • Use HEX colour codes;
  • Import images from external files;
  • View and edit existing animations;
  • Create simple frame by frame animations;
  • Render animation from Krita as a video file (you will need FFMPEG to do this).
  • Use shortcut keys to help speed up your workflow ...
    SPACE  CLICK  and  DRAG  to pan (move the image around in the window)
    to make the brush smaller
    to make the brush bigger
    TAB  to toggle all the toolbars and dockers (focus mode)
    - If you are interested, there is a complete list of default shortcut keys available to download.

Well, you might need to try again!

Sort out your workspace

Getting a well ordered workspace is really important when you are working with applications like this. The image below shows the way that I've organised my Krita workspace ...
Click to engage

Right click on the "Brushes and stuff" toolbar and make sure you only have the following 'dockers' showing ...
  • Tool options
  • Toolbox
  • Onion skins
  • Layer
  • Animation
  • Toolbox
  • Timeline
... and arrange them like I have by clicking on the docker title (*not* the tab) and dragging them to the correct place.

Setting up the canvas

Depending on your screen size and how beefy your computer is, you might have to choose a smaller screen size for your video. To play it safe,  Choose an 800x600 "Custom Document" at 300ppi (Pixels Per Inch) - that way, it will fit nicely on most screens and the animations will run smoothly.

Making the animation

The following steps are only suggestions on how to create an introductory animation. Each instruction has a screenshot available for you to view. Make sure you stay focused - this is bloomin' 'ard!

See how you find this!

  1. Rename 'Layer 1' to 'Background' and 'Layer 2' to 'Animation'. (Screenshot)

  2. Click on the 'Background' layer to select it. (Screenshot)

  3. Use the "Paint Bucket" or the "Gradient" tool to fill in the background. You could create a nice image if you wanted, but make sure you use the background layer to do it on. (Screenshot)

  4. Lock the background layer when you have finished but leave it selected. (Screenshot)

  5. Now either a) import your logo using "Layer > Import/Export > Import > as Paint Layer ..." or b) copy the logo from the PowerPoint and choose "Edit > Paste". The logo will appear as a separate layer above the background either with the same name as the image file you imported or "Layer 3(pasted)". (Screenshot)

  6. Rename this layer (probably 'Layer 3') as 'Logo'. (Screenshot)

  7. Use the Transform Tool to move and resize the logo so it's in the correct position. Hold the 'SHIFT' key down to 'constrain proportions' (stop it going squashy). (Screenshot)

  8. When you are happy, Lock the Logo layer. (Screenshot)

  9. Select the animation layer. (Screenshot

  10. Right click on Frame '0' in the Timeline and choose 'Create Blank Frame' or, if you already have something on the layer, choose 'Create Duplicate Frame'.  This will enable you to create an animation. (Screenshot)

  11. Switch on Onion Skinning so you can see before and after the frames. (Screenshot)

  12. There are two options to make your animation ...

    Option A
    - Make 10-20 frames of a repeating animation (Screenshot);
    - Left click the first and shift / left click the last frame in the sequence (Screenshot);
    - Right click in the first frame and choose 'Copy to Clipboard' (Screenshot);
    - First "Left Click" (to deselect the selection you made) then "Right click" in the next empty frame and choose 'Paste from Clipboard' (Screenshot);
    - Repeat this process until you have at least 100 frames. Use the scrollbar under the timeline to move along.

    Option B

    - Create the first frame of your animation in Frame 0;
    - Choose a frame further on (say 20 frames) and either press "Delete" or "Right Click > Create blank frame" to clear the frame or "Right Click > Create duplicate frame" to create a new copy of the keyframe that you can edit. The first frame will remain visible until this frame (notice the thin blue line);
    - Create your second frame and repeat this process until you have about 100 frames worth of animation.

  13. With the Animation layer selected, click on the 'SVG Text Tool' and drag a box out on the canvas (Screenshot).

  14. Complete the details in the dialogue box, click 'Save' (Screenshot) and 'Close' (Screenshot) then use the select tool to move the text into the correct position (Screenshot). To edit the text, select it and press the ENTER key. To delete the text, select it and press delete.

  15. Finally, rename the layer to 'Title' by double clicking on 'Vector Layer 1' on the right (Screenshot).

  16. To animate the text, you will need to flatten it into a paint layer first (Right click on layer > Flatten Layer) and then create an animated layer by right clicking in the first frame and 'Create duplicate frame'. You can then drag the first frame to further on in the animation to make it appear later or animate the text in some way if you wish.

  17. Finally, play your animation!
Hello Jupiter, fancy seeing you here!

Exporting as a MP4 file

MPEG stands for Moving Picture Experts Group and isn't strictly a file format; it's the name of the organisation who came up with and maintains the file specification. However, MP4 (MPEG Layer 4) has been the chosen standard for video format since 1999 and continues to this day.

In order to convert your animation to an MP4 file, you need a tool called FFMPEG which you may or may not be able to download in school because it's a binary file and they are normally blocked. Nevertheless ...

Click to visit the FFmpeg website
and try to download the 'build'
suitable for your platform.

... or your teacher will show you where the ffmpeg.exe file is which might be easier. In Krita ...
  1. File > Render Animation...
  2. ⦿ Video
  3. Last frame ⤑ "103"
  4. Video Options > FFMpeg ⤑ browse for location of "ffmpeg.exe"
  5.     OK    
Your video should render into the same folder as the animation.

Which one was your favourite?

# Faster Workers.png

Record yourself using Audacity saying 'Thanks for watching' and then animate a face speaking (there was an example in one of the videos in Step 1) - remember to nudge the frames forward by one to make it slightly more realistic. Model the image of the mouth with your own mouth in front of a mirror to see what shapes it makes.


Practice screen recording using OBS - different sound tracks for sounds and commentary
Scenes - VIDEO tutorials

Sounds good!

Record introduction using audacity
Choose free sound from bensound or other free / cc source
Simple sound editing
Sound file types (MP3 / OGG / WAV / FLAC)
Recording and simple sound manipulation with Audacity (playing, recording, importing, simple editing) - VIDEOS
Selecting suitable components : images, stock images, sound, images from the Internet
Record sound track whilst watching video
Add music track in background?

That's all folks

Video production
Video as a container format / sequences of still images (heliotrope)
Create video with avidemux - You can append video tracks but they have to be exactly the same dimensions;
Creating simple video - importing clips / images
Frame rate / limits of human perception
Video file formats (MP4 / MPEG / AVI)

Squeezing more in

Choice of compression technology - human vs machine perception
Lossy / lossless and application to sound, video, data
Compression techniques
Compression and streaming.